Are Students In College At Risk For Meningococcal Disease
In the 1990s, college freshmen living in residence halls were identified as being at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease and outbreaks in young adults were primarily due to serogroup C. However, following many years of routine vaccination of young people with quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine , serogroup B is now the primary cause of meningococcal disease and outbreaks in young adults. Among the approximately 9 million students aged 18-21 years enrolled in college, there are an average of 20 cases and 2-4 outbreaks due to serogroup B reported annually.
Although incidence of serogroup B meningococcal disease in college students is low, college students aged 18-21 years are at increased risk compared to non-college students. The close contact in college residence halls, combined with certain behaviors , may put college students at increased risk.
Is there a vaccine against meningococcal disease?
Yes, there are 2 different meningococcal vaccines.
Are Free Or Low
Yes, if you don’t have insurance or your insurance does not cover the cost of the meningococcal vaccines, you may be able to find free or low-cost meningococcal shots. Note that there may still be an administration fee of up to $21.22 per shot.
- If you are 18 years old or younger: Talk to your doctor or clinic to see if they participate in the Minnesota Vaccines for Children Program.
- If you are 19 years old or older: Go to Vaccination Clinics Serving Uninsured and Underinsured Adults to search for a clinic near you that offers low-cost vaccines for eligible adults.
Administer Menb Vaccines At 16 Through 18 Years Of Age To Maximize Protection When Adolescents Are At Highest Risk
CDC recommends vaccine providers who choose to administer the MenB vaccine series give it in later adolescence. The preferred age at which to administer MenB vaccine is between 16 to 18 years. This timing maximizes the likelihood that vaccinated adolescents will have protection during the ages when they are at highest risk. Clinicians hopefully will see college-bound adolescents during a pre-college visit. If so, this visit provides an opportunity to initiate the MenB vaccine series for those who choose to receive it.
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Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals. Review of meningococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious meningococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, conjugate meningococcal vaccines are in limited use. Information on vaccination schedules in other countries can be found on the World Health Organization website. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional general information.
Menacwy Vaccine Mandates For Colleges And Universities
|Return to State Mandates on Immunization main page
|An empty box in this table indicates a “NO” answer
|Proof of vaccination or waiver required?
|all incoming freshmen residing on campus
|all incoming students residing on campus
|yes, within 5 yrs of enrollment
|all students residing on campus
|all incoming students residing on campus or in fraternity/sorority houses
|first year students living in on-campus housing
|all incoming students under 21 years of age
|all incoming students residing on campus
|all incoming students residing on campus
|full-time health science residential students
|newly enrolled full-time students & age < 21 yrs
|yes vax at > 16 yrs
|all students residing on campus
|all incoming freshmen < 23 yrs
|all students with 6 sem hrs or 4 qtr hrs
|all incoming students < 21 yrs and residing in campus housing
|all incoming students residing in campus housing
|all students residing in dorm or housing unit
|all incoming first-year students < 22 yrs residing on campus
|yes, within 5 yrs of enrollment
|all first year students residing on campus
|all incoming full time students
|If you have updated information concerning this table, please call 647-9009 or email . This table was compiled by the Immunization Action Coalition using information provided by state health departments.
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How Common Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease is becoming much less common. Over the past 20 years, the overall incidence of meningococcal disease in the US has declined 10-fold. Twenty years ago in Massachusetts there were 80-100 cases of meningococcal disease per year. In contrast, for the past decade the average is approximately 12 cases per year. Declining rates of meningococcal disease may be due in part to the introduction of meningococcal vaccines as well as other factors such as the decline in cigarette smoking, which may impact susceptibility to this disease.
Recommendations For Use Of Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine In College Students
College freshmen, particularly those who live in dormitories, are at modestlyincreased risk for meningococcal disease relative to other persons their age.Vaccination with the currently available quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccinewill decrease the risk for meningococcal disease among such persons. Vaccinationdoes not eliminate risk because a) the vaccine confers no protection against serogroupB disease and b) although the vaccine is highly effective against serogroups C, Y,W-135, and A, efficacy is < 100%.
The risk for meningococcal disease among college students is low therefore,vaccination of all college students, all freshmen, or only freshmen who live in dormitoriesor residence halls is not likely to be cost-effective for society as a whole. Thus, ACIPis issuing the following recommendations regarding the use of meningococcalpolysaccharide vaccines for college students.
Additional Considerations about Vaccination ofCollege Students
Although the need for revaccination of older children has not beendetermined, antibody levels decline rapidly over 2–3 years. Revaccination may be considered for freshmen who were vaccinated more than 3–5 years earlier. Routine revaccination of college students who were vaccinated as freshmen is not indicated.
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It Does Not Matter Which Menb Vaccine You Use
CDC has no preference as to which MenB vaccine you use, but adolescents must receive the same vaccine product for all doses. If an adolescent receives different products for any of the doses, proceed with the next scheduled dose of the selected product with a minimum of 1 month since the last dose of either product.
Exemptions To The Vaccination Requirement
A student is not required to submit evidence of receiving the vaccination against bacterial meningitis if the student meets any of the following criteria:
- the student is 22 years of age or older by the first day of the start of the semester or
- the student is enrolled only in online or other distance education courses or
- the student is enrolled in a continuing education course or program that is less than 360 contact hours, or continuing education corporate training or
- the student is enrolled in a dual credit course which is taught at a public or private K-12 facility not located on a higher education institution campus or
- Note: Students in Texas are required to receive an MCV4 vaccine on or after the students 11th birthday.
A student is not required to submit evidence of receiving the vaccination against bacterial meningitis if the student submits to the institution:
For public junior college students only: the secure on-line exemption form is available at DSHS exemption form. According to DSHS rules, a copy of the form must be submitted to the designated school official at the institution the student will be attending.
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Cdc Recommends Meningococcal Vaccination For People Identified As Being At Increased Risk During Outbreaks
CDC supports state and local health departments in investigating outbreaks and implementing outbreak control measures. During a serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease outbreak, CDC recommends MenACWY vaccination for people at increased risk because of the outbreak. During a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak, CDC recommends MenB vaccination for people at increased risk because of the outbreak. People who have previously received MenACWY or MenB vaccine and become at increased risk because of an outbreak may be recommended to receive a booster dose depending on how long it has been since they previously received the vaccine.
People With Certain Medical Conditions Need A Primary Series Of Menb Vaccine And Routine Booster Doses
Vaccinate people who have the following medical conditions with a primary series of MenB vaccine:
- Complement component deficiency
- Functional or anatomic asplenia
The primary series for Bexsero® requires 2 doses. Administer the second dose at least one month after the first dose. The primary series for Trumenba® for people at increased risk requires 3 doses. Administer the second dose 1 to 2 months after the first dose. Administer the third dose 6 months after the first dose.
Administer a booster dose of MenB vaccine 1 year after series completion and then every 2 to 3 years thereafter, to people with these medical conditions.
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Submitting Proof Of Vaccination
Do not submit your vaccination proof to Undergraduate Admissions or the Student Health Center.
Texas State uses Magnus Health SMR for managing compliance with the meningitis vaccination requirement. New students planning to enroll at Texas State must submit proof of meningitis vaccination directly to Magnus Health SMR. Students subject to the bacterial meningitis requirement will receive an email from Magnus Health SMR with instructions. Students will be charged $10 by Magnus Health SMR for processing the documents and verifying compliance with the vaccination requirement. Acceptable evidence of vaccination may include any of the following:
- An official immunization record from a government health authority .
- An official immunization record received from school officials, including a record from another state .
- Students using a pharmacy should download and provide the pharmacist with the generic immunization form available on the Magnus website, once they have paid their processing fee, to ensure they receive an approvable document from the pharmacist . H-E-B customers should request their Vaccine Administration Consent Form for submission to Magnus.
- All records must be in English to be approved.
Meningitis B Vaccine Now Required By Six More Indiana Universities
May 31, 2019 / 04:29 PM EDT
May 31, 2019 / 04:29 PM EDT
INDIANAPOLIS, Ind. Six universities across Indiana have added the meningitis B vaccine to their list of health requirements for incoming students.
Officials say Butler University, Earlham College, Marian University, Valparaiso University, St. Mary of the Woods College and University of Evansville added the new requirement after 11 confirmed cases of meningitis B across the country, including one fatality.
We have an opportunity at the university level to ensure the best health of our students while they are on our campus and under our care, said Dr. Maria Fletcher, MD, Physician Health Services at Butler University.
Traditionally, students have received the meningococcal conjugate vaccination, which covers strains A, C, W and Y. However, this vaccine does not protect them from the B strain of meningitis.
Ball State, Indiana State, Purdue, University of Indianapolis, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and others have previously required the meningitis B vaccine.
Currently Indiana has more universities than any other state that require the meningitis B vaccination in addition to the conjugate for all their students, said Lisa Robertson, Executive Director of the Indiana Immunization Coalition.
More information about meningitis B can be found at www.bewareofb.com.
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How Are The Bacteria Spread
These bacteria are passed from person-to-person through saliva . You must be in close contact with an infected persons saliva in order for the bacteria to spread. Close contact includes activities such as kissing, sharing water bottles, sharing eating/drinking utensils or sharing cigarettes with someone who is infected or being within 3-6 feet of an infected person who is coughing or sneezing.
Most Universities Recommend Meningitis B Vaccine For New Students But Few Require It
There are some things that make college great: living in dorms, going to parties and sharing everything with your close friends.
It’s those conditions that also make college students more prone than most to transmittable diseases such as Meningitis B.
But while almost all colleges and universities in Pennsylvania strongly recommend students be vaccinated against the potentially fatal Meningitis B, only a few require it.
All Pennsylvania college students living in on-campus housing are required by state law to get a meningitis vaccine that covers four strains of the disease but doesn’t protect against the B strain. According to the CDC, 60 percent of 16- to 23-year-olds who contract meningitis have the B strain.
In 2018, three Pennsylvania college students contracted Meningitis B, according to Nate Wardle, a spokesman for the state Department of Health.
One was a Penn State student living on its University Park campus, who eventually recovered.
Penn State strongly recommends a Meningitis B vaccine and stocks it at its student health center, but does not require it. The university’s infectious diseases manager, Shelley Haffner, urged new students to get the vaccine anyway.
Its important for college students because of their social and living arrangements. You have a greater risk for any kind of disease, Haffner said. If you can prevent a disease, why not?
A Big 10 school, Penn State doesn’t require the vaccine because it’s not mandated by the CDC.
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What Is Bacterial Meningitis
Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. The severity of illness and treatment differs depending on whether it is caused by a virus or bacterium. Viral meningitis is generally less severe and clears up without specific treatment. Bacterial meningitis can progress extremely fast, be severe and may result in brain damage, amputations, hearing and vision loss, learning disabilities or death. It is also important to know what type of bacterial meningitis, because antibiotics can prevent some types from spreading and infecting other people.
Further information can be found at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
What Are Neisseria Meningitidis
Neisseria meningitidis are bacteria that may be found normally in peoples throats and noses. About 5 to 15% of people carry these bacteria and do not get sick from them. These people may be referred to as colonized. Colonized people only have bacteria for a short time. Usually, the bacteria go away and these people may have increased resistance to infection in the future. In rare cases, the bacteria may get into the blood and go to the tissue surrounding the spinal cord and brain, causing severe illness. It is not known why this occurs in certain people and not in others. A recent upper respiratory illness may be a contributing factor.
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Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization
To ensure the ongoing safety of vaccines in Canada, reporting of AEFIs by vaccine providers and other clinicians is critical, and in some jurisdictions, reporting is mandatory under the law.
Vaccine providers are asked to report AEFIs, through local public health officials, and to check for specific AEFI reporting requirements in their province or territory. In general, any serious or unexpected adverse event felt to be temporally related to vaccination should be reported.
For additional information about AEFI reporting, please refer to Adverse events following immunization. For general vaccine safety information, refer to Vaccine safety and pharmacovigilance in Part 2.
Where Do I Submit My Meningitis Record
In Person: Stop by the Admissions Office at any Dallas College location to drop off proof of meningitis immunization. The office is open Monday-Thursday, 8 a.m.-7 p.m., and Fridays 8 a.m.-5 p.m.
Online: You can also submit proof of vaccination through the Med+Proctor portal. Its easy!
- Register: Go to medproctor.com and click register to create a new account. Enter your email address and follow the directions to get started.
- Fill out any required personal, medical or insurance information. Download the required forms and follow the directions provided.
- Upload: Log back in to your Med+Proctor account and upload a copy of your forms. Make sure your forms are complete and legible. You will receive an email confirmation once the forms have been reviewed.
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Who Is At Most Risk For Meningococcal Disease
High-risk groups include anyone with a damaged spleen or whose spleen has been removed, those with persistent complement component deficiency , HIV infection, those traveling to countries where meningococcal disease is very common, microbiologists who routinely work with the bacteria and people who may have been exposed to meningococcal disease during an outbreak. People who live in certain settings such as college dormitories and military housing are also at greater risk of disease from some serotypes.
Are There Times You Shouldn’t Get The Vaccine
Typically, you want to avoid getting it if you:
- Are very sick. A mild cold is OK, but for anything more than that, it’s better to hold off.
- Had a severe, life-threatening allergy to a meningitis vaccine or some part of it. Your doctor can tell you what’s in the vaccine.
- Had a severe reaction to the DTap vaccine or latex
- Have Guillain-Barre syndrome. Ask your doctor if the vaccine is safe for you.
- Have a latex allergy
May be pregnant or are breastfeeding. It’s typically best to avoid the vaccine in this case, but if it’s needed, your doctor can help weigh the pros and cons.
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